VIDEHA:15:16:मैथिली : विदेह: पहिल बेर ब्रेलमे

shanmasik ravivrat samapt 3 may ⠯⠼⠍⠱⠎⠻⠅ ⠗⠧⠻⠈⠧⠗⠞ ⠎⠍⠱⠈⠏⠞


     janki navmi 3 may vatsavitri 24 may ⠚⠱⠝⠅⠻ ⠝⠧⠍⠻


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    saurath sabha samapti 2 july ⠎⠉⠗⠱⠺ ⠎⠘⠱ ⠎⠍⠱⠈⠏⠞⠻  harishayan ekadashi 3 july ⠓⠗⠻⠩⠽⠝ ⠳⠅⠱⠙⠩⠻

aashadhi guru poornima 7 july ⠂⠯⠱⠐⠻⠻ ⠛⠂⠗⠂ ⠏⠃⠈⠗⠼⠻⠍⠱






Basarh  seal shows that in Tirabhukti, the Kumaumatya was entrusted with the district administration to the provincial governors called uparika.

The Panchobh copper-plate grant deed of Ramagupta appears to continue the dominance of Later Guptas over the Southern part of the province .  Sangramagupta granted a village Vanipama in district Jambuvani to a Brahmana called Kumira Swami of Sandilya Gotra,.learned in Yajurveda and belonging to Kola chanula.

After the Guptas, Mithila formed a part of Harsha's Empire which included  Lord of Five Indies have been interpreted as,  Lord of Punjab, Kanyakubja, Mithila, Bengal and Orissa.


Harsha  left no son to succeed him, Arjuna or Arunusva, in¬charge of Tirabhukti,  claimed imperial status and forced neighbouring provinces to submit to him. Madhavagupta who became independent, must have resisted the pretensions of Arjuna. A chinese mission was going to Magadha and Arjuna attacked the mission. This assault brought about  the invasion of his kingdom by the Tibetan army swooped down upon Tirhut, the kingdom of Arjuna and stormed his capital and also other towns of the kingdom. He was captured and  it was quite possible that Tirabhukti was brought under Tibetan imperialism aided by the Nepalese army.  King of Tibet,

established his sway over Mithila, along with Nepal. Tibetan rule in Tirhut lasted only for about half a century A. D. 647-8 to 703 A.D.

Arjuna attacked  a Chinese mission  killed most of the members of the mission and plundered their property. Want hiuen-tse fled to Nepal, secured 7,000 soldiers from Nepal and 1200  from Tibet and returning to Indian plains, disastrously defeated and imprisoned Arjuna and  took him  a captive to China.


Gopala : The palas of Bengal extended their influence over the whole of Eastern India¬. The Palas inscriptions of earlier times do not allude at all to any glorious and legendry descent as they were Buddhists. The foundation of  the Pala dynasty in Bengal goes back to Gopala,  put an end to the state of anarchy which prevailed in Bengal after the death of Sasanka.

Gopala is also credited with the foundation of the Nalanda Vihara , reduced Magadha also under his power.


Dharmapala  (c, 783-818 A. D.) really raised the glory of Palas to Imperial heights, Mithila was an integral part of its central stru-cture being directly administered by the king himself. Dharmapala fought with the Pratiharas and made himself the real master of Kanauj and installed his protege chakrayuddha to  the throne as a vasal ruler.

 The Karnatas and the Latas are mentioned among royal officers in the Nalanda Inscription of Dharmapala. 

Devapala (c. 818-850 A D.) continued his hold over Mithila, Mudgagiri (Munger) became an important administrative centre.

Badal pillar inscription of Narayanapala-  the victories of  the time of Devapala are credited  to the hereditary ministerial family, Darbharai  and his grandson Kedara Mishra who were Maithil. Devapala's reign is the high water mark of the Pala imperialism.


Bhagalpur Inscription definitely uses the word  Tribhukti for Monghyr.


Vigrahapala I is the sams as Surapala mentioned in the Hadal Pillar inscription of Guravamisra,, because it is the only name mentioned between Devapala and Narayanpala, and again in the Bhagalpur grant.

Narayanpala (c. 863-916 A.D.) again Pala domination over Mithila.  granted from Mudgagiri (Monghyr) a village in Tirabhukti to the Shrine of Siva.


The Bhagalpur copper Plate of Narayana¬pala - Guravamigra was holding a high office-that of a dutaka of a royal grant. After his accession Narayanapala became reconciled with the mini¬sterial family and  pardoned Guravamisra for the part that he or his father might have played during the internal troubles in the family.

The Dighwa-Dubauli plate was issued by Mahendrapala -a village grant  about 40 Kms. South east of Gopalaganj in the Saran District- , hold of Mahendrapala over North Bihar. His last known date is 907-08 A.D.

Mahipala's authority over Tirabhukti is proved by two identical ima¬ges inscriptions found in the village of Imadpur in the Muzaffarpur.

 In 1019 A.D. Kalachuri Gangeyadeva was ruling over Tirhut, and therefore Mahipala I must reconquered it from Kalachuris .

Nanyadevaof Mithila who came to the throne in  10th century AD.


"Gaudadlivaja" -the correct reading being " Garudadhvaja", few possibility  of  identifying Gatigeyadeva of Tirabhukti with the Kalachuri King.Ganga or Gahga-deva, son of Nanyadeva (1097-1147 A. D.).

Mithila might have passed into the hands of some other ruler than the Palas.


Ramapala attempted a partial rejuvenation. Chedis of Tripuri, the Karnata's of Mithila, the Raivartas of North Bengal. the Rashtrakuta of Pithi (in Bihar), the Chand¬isis of Kanauj and the Senas of Eastern Bengal hammered at the Pala king¬dom, which ultimately disappeared by 12th century A. D.

Ramapala (c. 1084-1130) conquered Mithila from Raja king of Kaivartas. 

Vaidyadeva's Kanauli copper-plate refer to the conquest of  the land of Rampala's father by the expression "Janakabhu " and not that of Mithila.

Dharmapala founded the famous Vikramasila Vihara .

The His¬tory of the 84 Siddhas and that of the celebrated Maithili poems called Chariapadas clearly show how valuable the influence of the Pala rulers was in the history of Buddhism and its thought.

By storming the capital of the Paramara King Bhoja I , destroying the Kalachuri King Karma, the Chalukya king Somesvara I paved the way for the Karnatic domination in North Indian politics

like Gahadavalas of Kanauj (or Kashi), the Senas of Bengal and Nanyadeva of Mithila.

Vijayasena (c 1095-1158 A.D.) made an attempt to conquer Mithila also. Nanyadeva claimed to have broken the power of Ganda and Venga- Nanyadeva's son Gange¬deva, claimed to be the lord of Gauds ,  encounter of Vijayasena and Nanyadeva was indecisive and that Vijayasena's attempt to bring under his domination, the whole of the basic Pala Empire met with a failure in so far as Mithila was concerned


Vallalasena (c. 1158-1179 A. D.)-Vallala Charita - dominations of Vallalasena comprised five province, viz., Vanga, Varendra, Radha, Bagdi and Mithila.

Lakshmanasenu (c. 1179-1205 A. D) was perhaps one of the greatest Kings of Bengal. His court was adorned by emiment poets- Umapatidhara Maithil ,Govardhanuclrarya was certainly a Maithil. Vidyapati records the story of an actor who died while impersonating Rama's viraha before his court , an-era in Mithila after him- one Lakhanackanda in the Ragatarangini of Lochana.

Chronicle of one Mukunda Sena is preserved in Nepal Durbar Library.

Karnata kings were in the modern province of Bihar from even the 6th Cen. A. D,brought with him Karnatic pandits to propagate their culture. Nanyadeva brought scholars rldharadasa, the author of the Sadukti¬karpamrita. A great .scholar and Vidyaguru of Vacha¬spati, Trilochana might have come to Mithi¬la along with the Kings of Karnata .


 Ajay Thakur, presently living at Vasco da Gama, associated with Broadcast Journalism. Presently he is doing research study on Goa and Maithils.



It is Sunday. About 6 pm in the evening. It is raining outside the Saibaba Temple on the outskirts of Cuchelim in Mapusa, Goa. Inside Lalan Jha clears his throat laale laale arhul kerka aabait achi. There is a hush. A lone voice Bhaiya, hum sunn ney to cheliyaah, muda ahaa pher sau kahiyon. Lalanji breaks into the song as the 25 strong crowd accompanies him. The song Maithili, the place Konkan. What is the connection. This is no ordinary temple, this is no ordinary place, this is no ordinary land. And this is no ordinary connection.


If I say Goa to You, what will come to your mind. Beautiful white beaches, white skinned angrez wearing less or no clothes lying or swimming in sea, people wearing skirt and blouse, drinking wine-beer-whisky, indulging in all vices. Let Me disappoint You. And take You to a Goa that is a part of Mithilaanchal. And it would not be wrong to say Goans are from Mithilaanchal.


The famous singer, Lata Mangueshkar comes from a small village called Mangueshi. This village is named after the resident God Shri Mangesh. An avatar of Shiva. The history of Shri Mangesh or (Shri Mangueesh or Shri Mangireesh) dates back to the Puranas. In the Ramayana we know of how Lord Parashuram wiped the Kshatriyas off the face of Earth thrice was doing penance when Rama broke Shivas Bow in Janakpur (Capital of Mithila / Tirhut), Parashuram stormed in to Janak's (Sita's Father) Court to kill Rama as he (Parashuram) had sworn to wipe all Kshatriyas from Earth. But when Rama told him that his (Parashuram's) time was over and that he (Ram) was his (Parashuram's) own next Avatar (both Parashuram and Ram are Vishnu's Avatar or reincarnation)...Parashuram apologised and left the court.


The Sahyadri Khand of Skand Purana says that Parshuram invited 66 Panch Gaud Brahmins belonging to 10 gotras from Trihotra (believed to be Tirhut in Bihar) to Kushasthal (now known as Kutthal or Cortalim, Goa) for performing the Yagya after wiping out the Kshatriyas. 96 families of the Goud (meaning northern) Saraswats came to the southern half of India and hence carried the appellation of 'northern' in the form of the word Goud. In view of the 96 families who formed 96 settlements in Goa - Sasashti (66)  is now called Salcette, then Tissuari (30) which is now known as Tiswadi. There were further settlements in Baradesh (12 settlements) now known as Bardez where the 16th International Maithili Conference was held.


The Gowd Saraswats have built many temples in Goa like the Ramnathi temple in Loutolim, and the Mangueshi and Shantadurga temples in Kushasthali and Quellosim along with people from the other Hindu castes. Each group had brought with it the idol they used to worship and installed it in the villages donated by Parshuram out of the land reclaimed by him from the sea. The legend has it that his arrow hit Banahalli (Benaulim in Goa) where Lord Varuna (Sea) stepped back and released a fertile land. Even today, Benaulim has acres of fertile land where paddy is grown which is the only area, which has proofs of being retrieved from sea.


While the Tiswadi commune was migrants from Kanyakubja, Shashatis were from Mithila. There is a view that these settlements together were 96 and referred as Sahanavis (Saha means six and Navi means ninety) and later as Shenvis. These settlers belonged to 10 Gotras - Bhardwaja, Koushika, Vatshya, Kaundinya, Kashyapa, Vasishtha, Jamdagni, Vishwamitra, Gautam and Atri.


Those belonging to the Vatsa and Kaundinya gotra received Kushasthal as gram dan and installed in the village their family deity, Shri Mangireesh. The Purana explains that the Bramha had established the Shivalinga at Monghir in Trihotra (Tirhut) and it came to be known as Mangireesh or Mangeesh.


Once settled down, they all  continued in their traditional professions of administration and education. Those Saraswats who were intelligent and lucky got royal patronage and positions in governance in due course of time. But the opportunities in these familiar professions were limited in Goa at that time. So some enterprising Saraswats branched out into the practice of trading. The successes of these pioneering Saraswat traders encouraged many other Saraswats to whole-heartedly adopt trading as a mainstream profession.


So while we are yet to see a Maithil Tata or Birla, Goa is actually led by Salgaocars, Dhempos, Timblos & Chowgule all Goud Sarwaswat Brahmins from Tirhut or Mithila.


Today there are more than 2000+ Maithils who stay in Goa and can be found mostly in and around Mapusa, the shipyards dotting Zuari and in the Indian Navy. But there is a lot of commonality that still exists if not culturally then definitely genetically. Just like our Kuldevi they have a Kuldevata in each household. A lot of stress is given in the practise and understanding of vedic rituals just like us.


In habits they love the fish as we do. Just like us they lay more stress ineducation first then getting into profession. Respect to elders, joint family system above nuclear families and stress on karmakaand. Goans are quite like us.


This place is as peaceful as Mithila (all of us agree it is that part of Bihar which has very low crime rate). The umpteen number of ponds and water bodies of Goa reminds Maithils of the umpteen pokhars (pond) and dhars (streams) of the Kamala Balan plains.


So when Railway Minister Lalu Yadav announced the starting of Vasco - Patna Express on our demands, the thought that crossed my mind was isnt it strange that our forefathers followed the same route years ago to discover Go-rashtra or Goa now, generations will take a train to recreate the historic journey? I took the route long ago, Why dont You?




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